Most critical historians would agree that the invisibility of Latin American women and their demands during the 1960s was due to a power-centred vision of revolution, reproducing a patriarchal division of roles inspired by the success of the Cuban Revolution. In this article, however, I intend to go beyond de Giorgi’s and my own previous interpretations by expanding the temporal framework and analysing the inherent contradictions of women’s militancy in a male-dominated political organisation based on an egalitarian ideology. Any attempt to formulate a broad theoretical framework for understanding these contradictions has to rely on a body of empirical research on specific cases in Latin American countries.
Last month, a petition calling for gender equality in politics – signed by 5,500 Uruguayans – was handed to party leaders in the presence of the actor Emma Watson, UN Women’s goodwill ambassador. Uruguay was one of the first countries in Latin America to go through the demographic transition, moving from high fertility and mortality, to low fertility and mortality. Population growth stayed low during this process and population decline is projected to begin in the mid-21st century.
Luisi was a leader of the feminist movement in the country of Uruguay. In 1909, she became the first woman in the country to obtain a medical degree and was highly respected. She represented Uruguay in international women’s conferences and traveled throughout Europe. She voiced her opinion on women’s rights, and in 1919, Paulina started the force for women’s rights in Uruguay.
Before the 1970s, Uruguay was known as the freest and safest South American country, with an exemplary judiciary system. During the military dictatorship (1973–1985), personal and human rights were suspended, and formal social control was directed at suppressing “subversive” activities. As a result, many thousands of people left the country as political refugees, and many who stayed were imprisoned, tortured, or killed by the police and the military. After democracy was reestablished, the country returned to the previous system of social control. In the early 1900s, under the leadership of President José Batlle y Ordóñez, the nation achieved political stability and implemented social reforms. A period of prosperity that lasted until about 1950 transformed the country into “the Switzerland of South America.” Change in the international markets and an oversized government created economic hardship in the 1960s. Political instability ensued and, compounded by civil unrest and the appearance of the Tupamaro guerrilla movement, culminated in a coup and a military dictatorship in 1973.
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She studied at a teachers’ college and went on to medical school, where she graduated despite the jeers of her male classmates. Her passion for class equality and feminism led her to co-found the Socialist Party in 1910 and the National Women’s Council in 1916, making Luisi a pioneer in Uruguay’s early-century social movements.
Canada is working with partners across the UN system, member states, think tanks and civil society to identify effective ways to increase the meaningful participation of women in peace operations. The Elsie Initiative is an opportunity for Canada and its partners to create transformational change, and a more inclusive and effective future for peace operations, where missions are better prepared to deliver on their mandates and to support enduring peace around the world. The Government has established an office of assistance for victims of domestic violence that trains police how to resolve complaints of violence against women. A new directorate within the Ministry of Interior instituted a public awareness campaign about domestic violence and founded community assistance centers where abuse victims receive information and referrals to government and private organizations in their area that aid abused women. Both the Ministry of Interior and NGO’s operate shelters in which abused women and their families can seek temporary refuge (25 Feb. 2000, Sect. 5). The basic divisions seen in domestic or household work are reproduced in the world of labour. “Men are still seen in the role of provider, and women in their child-rearing role, which is why they are more involved in social, educational and health areas, and in care-taking of children and others,” Beramendi said.
After years of organizing and education by a determined feminist movement and its allies, Uruguayan women have made important gains in sexual and reproductive health and rights, including a law passed in 2012 https://bestlatinawomen.com/uruguayan-women/ that provides for legal abortion in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Yet the feminist movement here knows well that any wins must be constantly defended, and progress only comes after tremendous effort.
Similarly, although the law prohibits sexual harassment in the workplace, few complaints are ever filed under this provision. Ms. Mazzotti said that much was still left to be desired regarding fighting stereotypes and providing same opportunities for persons with disabilities, those of African descent, and sexual minorities. Efforts, through different platforms, were underway to train teenagers to respect and uphold all human rights and prevent violence. Unfortunately, Uruguay continued to experience insufficient representation of women in the executive and the Parliament, while there seemed to still be a glass ceiling for women in both business and academic worlds. On the whole, nonetheless, women in Uruguay were better educated than men, but the wage gap still persisted.